So, what you're wanting is, "remember all my settings on whatever machine I'm on and automatically restore them when I boot on it."
I don't believe MX has that feature. But I know of no other distro that has it either. Yes, you could script quite a lot to get the whole desktop machine-dependent. Linux is very scriptable.
If you didn't want to have more than 1 user account, you could use tar to save key files from your home directory to a backup file on your USB drive with a machine dependent name. Then script a restore from the archive and restart X when you log on.
I would suggest that a better approach would be to compromise on a display resolution you can work with on both machines, like 1920x1080 or something. Get everything looking great at that resolution, and then reset the resolution of the Yoga or any other HiDPI screen to the standard you have chosen. Then all you're doing is simply resetting the resolution depending on the machine.
A toggle button like fehlix suggests would make resetting the resolution easy, but you could put an xrandr statement in a startup script to always set the resolution to 1920x1080 (or whatever) regardless of the machine since it will not hurt to reset it to itself on your home machine.
Remember that x.conf and .Xprofile overrides what the system dynamically decides your resolution should be, so if you create one of those config files, you can enforce the resolution you like without using xrandr to reset.