ALERT! /dev/disk/by-uuid/e5e857f9-dd3d-43b2-b252-a5531d488478 does not exist
That error does not make any sense to me, because grub was just successfully loaded from that partition. Otherwise, you would not see the kingfisher background. During the handoff from grub to the kernel, something has gone wrong with hardware (re)initialization by the kernel. The kernel on the InstalledUSB is supposed to be the same as the liveUSB, I'd expect it to act the same.
For completeness, I'd take the InstalledUSB with the edited fstab back to the other system and try to boot it there. If it works on the original system, the installedUSB is configured specifically for the hardware it was installed on, unlike the liveUSB. If the errors are the same, there must be a problem with the kernel or initramfs, maybe missing legacy USB module(s). If fact, your post#1 does mention missing modules... Unfortunately, I don't have any ideas on how to fix either outcome.